Europe’s Ghost of Summers Past

Hungary and Poland’s most recent opposition to the EU will delay COVID-19 recovery funds.

On July 21, European Council President Charles Michel sent out a one-word tweet that left few Europeans’ eyes dry and champagne corks popping as early as 5:30 in the morning. After months of tense clashes between EU members over the size and scope of a seven-year budget and COVID-19 recovery fund, Michel’s tweet, “Deal!” informed the world that the EU had finally reached consensus over how to support the economy. It took locking EU ministers into a conference room for five days (said to be one of the longest negotiations in EU history), extensive concessions from the rival southern and “Frugal Four” blocs, and a race against economic meltdown to arrive at a recovery package and budget worth $1.82 trillion. The deal was hailed as an unprecedented show of European unity in the face of regional factionalism, just in time for summer vacation and ahead of an expected spike in unemployment, COVID-19 infections, and economic struggle across the continent. The EU was rescued from the brink. Or so it seemed. One provision of the summer’s budget agreement and COVID-19 recovery package is now coming back to haunt the EU, and the timing could not be worse. As Europe prepares for […]

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Caroline D. Rose
Caroline Rose has a Masters of Science (MSc) in the History of International Relations from the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Just before joining GPF she served as a Research Associate for LSE’s International Drug Policy Unit (IDPU), where she researched the nexus between illicit economies and armed insurgencies. She earned her undergraduate degree from American University's School of International Service and has worked previously at both Brookings Institute and the Atlantic Council. Her studies and projects at these institutions covered a range of topics, from Russian and Chinese cyber warfare, evolving American interest within a changing international order, and grand security strategies against state-led revisionism in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific. Throughout she's written for a diverse array of publications including Limes in Italy.