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Of course, Germany may try to diversify its energy sources, which include Libya, Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Norway and the Netherlands, but it would struggle to do so. Germany relies heavily on pipelines for its energy, particularly Russian natural gas. It has four cross-border crude oil pipelines, four domestic pipelines, and three oil ports in the North and Baltic seas. But Germany has fewer options for natural gas and no major liquefied natural gas facilities. Simply put, Germany is beholden to the countries with which its pipelines have a connection – something that makes it vulnerable to retaliation.

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