The Roots of Arab Republican Despotism

In Arab republics, elections are often anything but democratic.

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Last week, Syrian President Bashar Assad won a seven-year presidential term for the fourth time since 2000. According to official figures, Assad won 95 percent of the vote, with close to 80 percent of eligible voters casting ballots. His predecessor and late father, Hafez Assad, who ruled Syria for 29 years, won his first election […]

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Hilal Khashan is a Professor of political science at the American University of Beirut. He is a respected author and analyst of Middle Eastern affairs. He is the author of six books, including Hizbullah: A Mission to Nowhere. (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2019.) He is currently writing a book titled Saudi Arabia: The Dilemma of Political Reform and the Illusion of Economic Development. He is also the author of more than 110 articles that appeared in journals such as Orbis, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Middle East Quarterly, Third World Quarterly, Israel Affairs, Journal of Religion and Society, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, and The British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies.